Bleeding gums is a very common dental condition among patients worldwide. The major causes of bleeding gums are poor oral hygiene, consumption of damaging foods, vitamin deficiencies, etc.
Bleeding gums are also a symptom of gum disease or periodontitis. It becomes necessary to treat them before they advance into life-threatening diseases. Let us try to understand some procedures that help in the treatment of bleeding gums.
1. Professional cleaning
Professional cleaning of the teeth performed at the dental clinic is a good way to get rid of bleeding gums. Bacterial accumulation and poor oral hygiene are the two main reasons for bleeding gums and professional cleaning ensures that there are no microbes growing inside the mouth and cleanses the mouth deeply.
The procedure begins by examining the teeth. The next step involves scaling or removal of tartar or bacterial accumulation using a scraper. Then the teeth are cleaned with an electric toothbrush to remove any residue of tartar accumulation. Special dentist-approved toothpaste is used for this purpose. Then the teeth are expertly flossed, which is way more efficient than regular flossing of the teeth. The patient is then suggested to rinse the mouth with fluoride liquid or any other rinsing solution. Lastly, the patient is given fluoride treatment. A mouthpiece is fit over the surface of the teeth and a foamy gel is applied. Fluoride varnish is applied to it and left for a minute. Then, the teeth are rinsed and the procedure is complete.
2. Scaling and root planing
Scaling and root planing are typically performed for teeth chronically affected by gum disease, but they can also be performed for the treatment of bleeding gums. These treatments clean teeth more deeply than typical teeth-cleaning procedures.
The procedure begins by scaling the teeth. The teeth surface is scraped to remove plaque accumulation and tartar accumulation. The pockets formed in between teeth and gums are also scraped. Next, root planning is done by using a scaling tool. Once both these procedures are completed, the patient is prescribed antibiotics or additional medications to prevent the regrowth of bacteria and other microbes.
3. Flap surgery
The space between the teeth and the gums, commonly called pockets, can sometimes accumulate tartar which may cause bleeding of the gums. These pockets are cleaned by lifting the gums and cleaning debris.
The procedure begins by cleaning the mouth. Then, a small part of the gums is lifted using dental equipment. The space is cleansed using a cleaning solution. The main aim of this procedure is to remove tartar accumulation. After cleaning the tartar, the gum is pulled back to its original place, covering the teeth. The gums are made to sit around the teeth in such a way that the space between the teeth and the gums is reduced. Doing so will help prevent any further accumulation of tartar and plaque build-up. This prevents any serious future dental issues from happening.
4. Guided tissue regeneration
Bleeding gums are usually either a symptom of gum disease or a side effect of it. So due to periodontitis or other severe gum diseases, the gum tissue becomes damaged and infected. Guided tissue regeneration may help in the regeneration and regrowth of the affected tissue.
Guided tissue regeneration is also used for a variety of dental diseases apart from gum diseases like implant dentistry, oral surgery, etc. Since it is a surgical process, the patient may experience some pain. Patients with low pain tolerance are not suggested this treatment. Also, anesthetics have to be used to minimize any sensation of pain in patients. This procedure is a little outdated but still performed in severe cases of any dental ailment or disease.
5. Dental surgery
When bleeding from gums becomes excessive and uncontrollable, the patient is referred to a physician for diagnosis of underlying medical conditions. If the patient has no medical condition causing excessive bleeding, the dentist may suggest dental surgery.
Now dental surgeries are available in various forms. Some of them are implant surgeries, orthodontics, prosthetics, veneers, periodontics, crowns, bridges, etc. These could be performed for various reasons like the surgical placement of dental equipment, treatment of supporting organs like gums, cheekbones, etc., treatment of any injuries to the organs surrounding the mouth like the jawbone, etc.
The dentist will closely analyse the condition of the teeth and perform suitable dental surgery to stop the bleeding and fix the issue permanently.
6. Soft tissue graft
Bleeding gums can also be a symptom of receding gum lines. Gum recession is defined as the pulling away of the gum tissue from the teeth causing inflammation, bleeding to the gums, and damage to the supporting bones. The major cause for this is loss of gum tissue which could be due to any reason.
Tissue grafting for gums is usually of three types:
- connective tissue grafting
- free gingival grafting
- pedicle grafting.
The dentist will analyse your situation and will suggest the appropriate mode of tissue grafting.
Connective tissue grafting is the most widely performed dental tissue grafting method for teeth. An incision is made at the base of the mouth using appropriate tools. A piece of tissue is removed from under this flap. This piece of tissue is stitched with the gums surrounding the affected tooth. After the gum tissue is stitched, the exposed tissue of the mouth is also stitched back.
Free gingival grafting involves the use of tissue obtained from the roof of the mouth. It is different from connective tissue grafting as it does not involve creating an incision to extract the tissue beneath it, instead, it directly cuts a piece of tissue from the roof. This piece is stitched to the affected gum tissue. This process is suitable for patients with low availability of gum tissue.
Pedicle grafting does not involve the extraction of tissue from either of the palates of the mouth. Instead, tissue is extracted from the area around the affected tooth. The incision is made in such a way that one part of it remains attached. The other edge is pulled over to cover the exposed root of the affected tooth. It is then stitched with the surrounding tooth. This procedure is suitable for patients who have an adequate amount of gum tissue available near the affected tooth.